Amsterdam has a tram network with a length of approximately 95 km and four metro (underground) lines which are running on a network of about 43 kilometres (as of 2016). A special feature is the operation of the line 51 which runs in sections of both networks. The vehicles are equipped with pantographs on the roof as well as pantographs at the bogies (for the power supply by live rail in the metro section). Operator of the tramway and metro system is the → GVB, what means "Gemeentevervoerbedrijf".
The city of The Hague has a population of 500,000 and is the seat of the Government of the Netherlands (but not the capital, which is Amsterdam). It has a large tram network with a system length of more than 100 kilometres. The tram is operated by → HTM ("Haagsche Tramweg-Maatschappij"). The light rail routes into the southeastern suburbs and the metro line to Rotterdam are named RandstadRail and are operated with white-blue-gray liveried vehicles.
The Rotterdam tram runs on a network with an extension of approximately 75 kilometres. In addition, the second-largest city of the Netherlands (more than 600,000 inhabitants), has a metro system with two lines through the city centre (one in north-south and one in east-west direction) and branches in the outer areas. Operators of both means of transport as well as numerous bus routes is → RET (Rotterdamse Elektrische Tram N.V.).
In 1989, a high-floor light rail line with 92 cm high platforms was inaugurated in Utrecht to connect the new residential area of Nieuwegein with the city centre. The line splits into two branches in Nieuwegein, the western branch (line 61) was extended to the neighbouring town of IJsselstein in two stages in 1985 and 2000. At the end of 2019, a second line was opened to the university in the De Uithof district (line 22), which was planned as a low-floor tram. To ensure compatibility with the new line and since the high-floor cars built by the Swiss company SIG had reached the end of their economic lifetime, the two existing lines were converted for the use of low-floor cars in 2020/21. The network is operated by → Qbuzz under the brand name U-OV.
The public transport network of Brussels has four metro routes with a system length of almost 40 kilometres and a large tram network of approximately 140 kilometres. A special feature are the three tunnel routes in the city centre, which are used as a "Prémétro" by the tram, but could be used from the Metro after a marginal conversion. The operator of the network is the municipal transport company STIB / MIVB. The two different abbreviations are due to the bilingualism in the city of Brussels: "Société des Transports Intercommunaux des Bruxelles" (French) and "Maatschappij voor het Intercommunaal Vervoer te Brussel" (Dutch).
The city of Antwerp is located in the northern, Dutch speaking part of Belgium and has approx. 500,000 inhabitants. The town is known as a big seaport (the third-largest in Europe) and as a diamond trading place. The Antwerp Tramway runs on a network of over 70 kilometers which is carried out as a so-called "Premetro" on 15 kilometers length in the centre as well as under the river Schelde. This means that those sections are in a tunnel which can be upgraded on a full metro standard at a later time. Operator of all Flemish tramways (also Gent as well as the Kusttram) is the transport company → De Lijn.
Ghent is the capital of the Belgian region of East Flanders and has about 250,000 inhabitants. The metre-gauge tram network has a system length of approx. 30 kilometres. A curiousity are the large gaps in the numbering of the lines - the four tram lines are named 1, 4, 22 and 24. Operator of the Ghent tram network is → De Lijn.
Kusttram (Coast Tram)
The Kusttram is a about 70-kilometre-long tram line connecting the towns along the Belgian North Sea coast. It runs on metre-gauge tracks, starts near the French border in De Panne and terminates a few kilometres before the Dutch border in Knokke. The operational centre is Ostend (Flemish: Oostende). The journey time for the entire route is almost two and a half hours (one way). The Kusttram is operated by the Flemish transport company → De Lijn.
The tramway in Charleroi (South Belgium, approx. 200,000 inhabitants) is largely developed as a light rail system, traced underground or on bridges and is marketed as a metro. It operates on a 30 kilometre long, metre-gauge network and is operated by → TEC (Transport En Commun). In the 1970s, it was planned to convert the network to a "real" subway, but this completely disregarded the needs of transport. Further expansion was already halted in the 1980s due to financing problems. As a result, the infrastructure today is completely oversized: At many stations there are unused platforms, the ones in operation are often many times longer than the trains that stop there. A complete line never went into operation and becomes more and more desolate. An important gap in the inner city was filled in 2012 - again as a "classic" tram line.
Luxembourg, the capital of the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, has almost 120,000 inhabitants. Faced with a massive traffic problem, also due to heavy commuter flows, it was decided to rebuild the tram, which was shut down in 1964. The first section was opened in December 2017. A company called → Luxtram was founded to operate the tram.