The Italian capital (almost three million inhabitants) has a relatively small tramway network with a system length of some 40 kilometres. The Metro (Underground) network consists of three lines and operates on approx. 60 kilometres of route. Accordingly, the traffic problems in the town are high: While the metro runs in a high frequeny, but is highly overcrowded in the peak times, waiting times for trams and buses up to 30 minutes are not unusual. The public transport in Rome by → ATAC (Azienda Tranvie ed Autobus del Comune di Roma).
Milan (Italian: Milano), the capital of the region Lombardy, is the second largest city in Italy with approx. 1.3 million inhabitants. The city has Italy's biggest tram network with a system length of some 120 kilometres, which is completed by a Metro network with an extension of more than 90 kilometres. Both are operated by → ATM (Azienda Trasporti Milanesi S.p.A.).
Turin is the capital of the Italian region Piemont. It located mainly on the western bank of the Po River and has approx. 900,000 inhabitants. The town has a tram network with a length of almost 60 kilometres. Additionally, since 2006 there is an some 15 kilometres long Metro (underground) line called "Metropolitana di Torino". Unfortunaly, it is almost impossible to take photos of the Siemens-built VAL system metro since it runs exclusively subsurface, has platform screen doors and the tracks are roofed inside the stations. Operator of the public transport in Turin is → GTT (Gruppo Torinese Trasporti S.p.A.).
Florence (ital .: Firenze), the capital of the Tuscany region in Italy, has a population of almost 400,000. In 2010, a 7.4 kilometre long tram line were opened after the tram was abandoned in 1958. The tram is operated by a company called → GEST (Gestione del Servizio Tramviario), 51% owned by RATP (the Paris Metro operator) and 49% by ATAF, the municipal bus operator, whose tariff system also applies on the trams.
Venice has an approx. 20 kilometers long so-called Translohr system, this is a tramway on rubber tires with a centric guide rail. The routes are mainly located in the suburbs on the mainland with its hub in Mestre. Only one stop is inside the famous lagoon town. This stop is an interchange point to the water buses ("Vaporetti") which carry the main load of the traffic here. Another rail system is the cable-drawn "People Mover" which connects the terminus of the tram in Venice with the cruise terminal and the island of Tronchetto. Trams, buses and water buses are operated by → ACTV SpA (Azienda del consorzio trasporti veneziano), the People Mover by the municipal traffic organization AVM (Azienda Veneziana Della Mobilità).
The city of Trieste is located in the north-east of Italy directly at the Slovenian border and has about 200,000 inhabitants. It has a 5 kilometres long interurban tramway line connecting the city centre with Opicina, a neighbouring town north of Trieste. A height difference of 350 metres has to be negotiated, of which 160 metres are managed by a 800 metre long, up to 26 percent rising funicular. The tramcar is pushed up or pulled down the hill by the cable car. This technically interesting and scenic tramway as well as the city buses are operated by → Trieste Trasporti S.p.A.
Padua is one of the oldest cities in Italy and located in the north-east of the country about 30 kilometres west of Venice. The city has a population of more than 200,000 and has had a tram network since 1883, which was abandoned in 1954. In 2007 a "Translohr" line was inaugurated, which is a tram on rubber wheels with a central guide rail. The same system is also used in the neighboring city of Venice with longer vehicles. Furthermore, the cars in Padua are also able to run powered by a battery. This possibility is used in section of about 600 metres length the city centre. The tram is operated by a joint venture of the municipal → APS (Azienda Padova Servizi) and Busitalia, a subsidiary of the Italian national railway company.
Bolzano, the capital of the province of South Tyrol, has a population of 100,000. Until 1966 an interurban tram line linked Bolzano with the villlages on the Ritten plateau. A four kilometre long section was so steep (up to 25%), that the trams were pushed by a cogwheel locomotive. The section within the city of Bolzano and the cogwheel section were abandoned in 1966, the part on the Ritten plateau between Himmelfahrt and Klobenstein is still in operation. From Bolzano, a cableway or a bus must first be used to get to the line. It is operated by → SAD Trasporto locale S.p.A..
The northern Italian city of Bergamo (approx. 120,000 inhabitants) has an approx. 12 kilometres long tram line, which connects Bergamo with the north-eastern neighboring villages and has its terminus in Albino. It runs on a former railway line, which was abandoned in 1967. The trams are operated by → TEB (Tramvie Elettriche Bergamasche).
The port city of Genoa (about 600,000 inhabitants) has an approx. 8 kilometre long Metro line, which was opened in 1990 with just two stations and has been expanded little by little. Due to the high altitude differences in the city there are also three mountain railways: two funiculars and one cogwheel railway. Both means of transport as well as the city bus routes are operated by → AMT Genova ( Azienda Mobilità e Trasporti Genova S.p.A.)
To reduce the increasing number of cars and coaches in the historical town centre the city of Perugia (Italy, approx. 170,000 inhabitants) decided to build a "MiniMetro", which was opened in 2008. It is a transport system with relatively small vehicles (capacity max. 50 persons) which run every 1-3 minutes, depending on exploitation. It works according to the principle of the famous Cable Cars in San Francisco: There is a haul rope between the tracks which is permanently in movement. The cable grip connects the single car to the rope leaving the station and detaches automatically at the next station entrance. The fully automated MiniMetro is almost 4 kilometres long with a height difference of 160 metres and has 7 stops, two of them subsurface. The system is operated by → Minimetrò S.p.A..
The city of Naples near Vesuvius has about a million inhabitants. It has a relatively small tram network (12 km), which is arranged in a T-formation. There is also a Metro route (about 18 km), which will be extended to a ring line in the future. One further Metro route (line 6) is composed of only four stops and has no relevance at present. The tram and the city buses are operated by → ANM (Azienda Napoletana Mobilità SpA), the Metro by Metronapoli SpA.
The Sicilian capital of Palermo (approx. 700,000 inhabitants) has reopened its trams in late 2015. A former tram network existed until 1947. The modern network consists of four lines, while line 1 runs south of the city centre and has no connection to the other routes. They weren't in a hurry to introduce the tram, the construction of the new routes went on from 2007 to 2015. The network has a system length of some 18 kilometers and is operated by AMAT (Azienda Municipalizzata Auto Trasporti) Palermo.
The city of Messina is located in the north-east of Sicily and has approximately 250,000 inhabitants. Since 2003, it has a tram line (route 28 - it bears the number of the bus line, which was replaced by the tram). A fomer tram network existed from 1917 until 1951. The route is almost 8 kilometres long and is operated by → Azienda Trasporti Messina (ATM).
Catania has a population of 300,000 and is located in the east of Sicily. The city has a metro line that is only 4 kilometers long and was opened in 1999. It is the southernmost metro system in Europe. It runs partly on the former route of the narrow-gauge "Circumetnea" railway, which terminates in to Borgo today. The trains are unfortunately very neglected and smeared with graffiti. The metro and the narrow-gauge railway are operated by → Ferrovia Circumetnea (FCE).
The city of Cagliari (approx. 150,000 inhabitants) on the island of Sardinia is operating a light rail system since 2008, which is officially called "Metro Cagliari" and runs mostly on a former railway line. A four kilometre long section of line 2 is operated as a "tram train" in mixed operation with the narrow-gauge railway to Isili. Like the narrow-gauge railway, the 12-km-long light rail system has a gauge of 950 mm and is operated by → "Trasporti Regionali della Sardegna", abbreviated ARST.
The tram of the Sardinian city Sassari (approx. 120,000 inhabitants) consists of only one 4 km long line, which is officially called "Metro Sassari". Between the railway station of Sassari and Santa Maria di Pisa it follows the railway line to Sorso, which also runs on 950 mm wide narrow gauge tracks, for about 2 kilometres. Like the narrow-gauge railway and the tram of the southern Sardinian city of Cagliari, the tramway is operated by → "Trasporti Regionali della Sardegna", abbreviated ARST