Railways / Germany: Electric Locomotives / Baureihen 110, 139, 140 ("Einheitsloks")
The development of the so-called Einheitslokomotiven (= Standard electric locomotives) dates back to the 1950s, when the then German Federal Railways needed successors for their pre-war electric locomotives. The aim was to build different locomotive series for long-distance trains, local transport and heavy freight trains, but as many parts as possible should be interchangeable. A total of more than 1,500 locos were built. Meanwhile, almost all engines were withdrawn.
Railways / Germany: Electric Locomotives / Class 152
The class 152 (manufacturer's name: ES64F) locos were built between 1996 and 2001 as the successor of the class 150. The locomotives are based on the "EuroSprinter" prototype by Siemens, but were only designed for a speed of 140 km/h, as they were exclusively intended for use in freight transport. There were 195 locomotives ordered, of which only 170 were built. As the locomotives were not approved for use in Austria, the order for the remaining 25 locomotives was converted into "Taurus"-type locos (class 182).
Railways / Germany: Electric Locomotives / Siemens Taurus (182-183)
The Siemens ES64U2 or -U4 called "Taurus" is an electric locomotive series from the EuroSprinter loco family. It was developed in the end of the 1990s as a universal locomotive for the Austrian Federal Railways (ÖBB). In Germany, almost 100 engines were sold to private operators (mainly MRCE) and 25 to Deutsche Bahn (DB).
Railways / Germany: Electric Locomotives / Bombardier Traxx (185-186)
At the end of the 1990s, the DB freight devision required replacements for hundreds of old electric locomotives, primarily for the so-called → Einheitslokomotiven (= Standard electric locomotives). Due to the increasing international activities a double-system locomotive class was demanded, which is also able to work under the 25 kV AC system. The first engines were delivered in the year 2000 and became a bestseller: more than 400 locos were built for the DB, and orders by many private operators followed, so that a total of more than 1,000 locomotives were sold.
Railways / Germany: Electric Locomotives / Siemens ES64F4 (189)
The ES64F4 manufactured by Siemens is an electric freight locomotive with 6,400 kW power and a maximum speed of 140 km/h, in Germany denoted as class 189. The locos are equipped for all four electric systems commonly used in Europe (15 and 25 kV AC, 1.5 and 3 kV DC). The first engines of 100 ordered by DB and many more ordered by private operators were delivered in 2003.
Railways / Germany: Electric Locomotives / Siemens Vectron (193)
The "Vectron" is a locomotive family by Siemens. The locos are available in various versions for all voltage and train protection systems in Europe. The first locomotive was presented in 2010. It is the successor to Siemens' successful "Eurosprinter" family (ES64, e.g. the DB class 189 and the Taurus locos).
Railways / Germany: Diesel Locomotives / "Ludmilla" (232-234)
The diesel locomotives, which are unofficially called "Ludmilla", were imported by the GDR from Luhansk in the former Soviet Union (today Ukraine). The Deutsche Reichsbahn (German Reich Railways) named the more than 800 locos as class 130-132. After the German reunification and the founding of Deutsche Bahn AG, they were renamed into class 232-234.
Railways / Germany: Diesel Locomotives / Siemens Eurorunner ER20 (223)
Die "Eurorunner"-Lokfamilie ist eine Serie vierachsiger, dieselelektrischer Lokomotiven von Siemens. Sie wurde ursprünglich für die Österreichischen Bundesbahnen entwickelt, fand jedoch auch auch unter den deutschen Privatbahnen und Lokvermietern mehrere Käufer. Das erste Baujahr dieser Lokomotiven war 2002.
Railways / Germany: Diesel Locomotives / Bombardier Traxx DE (245)
Die dieselelektrischen Traxx-Lokomotiven des Herstellers Bombardier sind von den elektrischen Typen der Traxx-Familie (Baureihen 145, 146, 185-187) modular abgeleitet. Die erste Maschine wurde im Jahre 2006 vorgestellt. Die Deutsche Bahn setzt die ersten Loks seit 2014 ein, sie sollen langfristig die Baureihe 218 ersetzen.
Railways / Germany: Electric Multiple Units / ICE 1 - ICE 2 (401/402)
The first generation of ICE (InterCityExpress) trains were the 60 trainsets of the ICE 1-type, which came into service in 1991. From 1997, the ICE 2 trains were put into service. These trainsets are very similar to the ICE 1 trains, but consist of two units which could be coupled or detached as needed.
Railways / Germany: Electric Multiple Units / Class 420
The class 420 trainsets are electric multiple units formed of three cars for 'S-Bahn' commuter services. 480 units were built in eight series in the years 1969 to 1997. They were in operation in the suburban railway networks of Frankfurt am Main, Stuttgart, Munich and Rhine-Ruhr. In the meantime, most of the trainsets were replaced by new class 423 and 422 (Rhine-Ruhr) resp. 430 (Frankfurt, Stuttgart) vehicles.
Railways / Germany: Electric Multiple Units / Class 423
In the early 1990s, the development of a successor series for the S-Bahn trainsets of the → class 420 began. They were designed primarily for the Munich S-Bahn services, but are also in use on the S-Bahn networks in Stuttgart, Cologne, and around Frankfurt (Rhein-Main). The first trains were delivered in 1998. By 2007, a total of 462 trainsets had been built. After that, furter modified units were manufactured for the S-Bahn Rhein-Ruhr as class 422 until 2010. The most striking change is the new front design with an enlarged crumple zone. The class 430, which has been built for the S-Bahn Stuttgart and Rhein-Main since 2012, is also based on the "423".
Railways / Germany: Electric Multiple Units / Class 425, 426
The class 425 are a class of up to 160 km/h fast, four-car units built by a consortium of Siemens, Bombardier and DWA for commuter train services of Deutsche Bahn. The almost identically classes 426 (two-car units) and 424 for the Hannover S-Bahn services were derived from the 425 series. In the years 1999 to 2008, a total of 332 trainsets (of which 43 of the class 426 and 40 of the class 424) were built. Although the trains look very similar to the S-Bahn EMU's of the → class 423, they have only a small number of common features.
Railways / Germany: Electric Multiple Units / Stadler FLIRT (427-430)
The FLIRT electric multiple units are manufactured by the Swiss company Stadler Rail AG. The designation FLIRT is an acronym and means "Flinker, leichter, innovativer Regional-Triebzug" (= agile, light, innovative regional multiple unit). The first unit was introduced in 2004. Since then, more than 1,000 units were sold in two to eight-car units in numerous countries. The FLIRT 3, which was inaugurated in 2013, got a completely new front design in addition to numerous further technical developments.
Railways / Germany: Electric Multiple Units / Alstom Coradia Continental (440)
In the year 2000, Alstom presented a multiple commuter train unit called Lirex (Light Innovative Regional Express), which was exclusively equipped with independent single-wheel chassis. Based on the experience with this prototype, the "Coradia Nordic" trainsets for Sweden were developed, which were delivered from 2005 onwards and had "classic" Jacobs bogies instead of the single wheels. The "Coradia Continental" trains were adapted to the smaller Central European profile. The first of these units were delivered in 2008 for the regional trains network around Augsburg. Since then, the trainsets were ordered by several operators. The trains delivered from 2014 got a new, crash-optimized front.
Railways / Germany: Electric Multiple Units / S-Bahn Hamburg (470-474)
The S-Bahn Hamburg is a suburban railway system operated by Deutsche Bahn. It uses direct current (1,200 Volts) supplied by a third rail, therefore the S-Bahn Hamburg is a closed system. As a result of this, the S-Bahn Hamburg has always required its own vehicle types since the DC system was inaugurated in 1941. At the end of 2007, the first dual-system trains were put into service, which enable the connection to the "normal" DB network with overhead wires.
Railways / Germany: Diesel Multiple Units / Classes 610, 611
The classes 610 to 612 are (resp. were) diesel multiple units constructed for fast regional services with a maximum speed of 160 km/h. The vehicles are equipped with tilting technology which allows a higher speed in track curves. The first German tilting technology trains were class 610 DMU's which were put into service in 1992. Only 20 exemplars were built, which were in operation in the region around Nuremberg. The railcars were withdrawn in 2014 after only 22 years in service. Since the operator DB preferred vehicles which were built exclusively in Germany (components of the class 610 were imported from Italy), the follow-up class 611 was developed by the German manufacturer ADtranz. Due to numerous technical problems with these cars, however, also only 50 units were built.
Public Transport / Germany / Erfurt
Erfurt, the capital the German federal state of Thuringia, has about 200,000 inhabitants. Its tram network has a system length of approx. 45 kilometres. Since most of the routes outside the inner city are running on segregated tracks, it is marketed as the 'Stadtbahn (= light rail) Erfurt'. The trams are operated by → EVAG (Erfurter Verkehrsbetriebe AG).
Public Transport / Germany / Dresden
Dresden is the capital of Saxony in Germany and has approx. 500.000 inhabitants. It has an extensive tramway network with a route lenght of more than 130 kilometres. An unusual feature is the track gauge of 1,450 mm, this is 15 mm wider than the standard gauge. Operator of the tram and the city buses is → DVB (Dresdner Verkehrsbetriebe AG). A special attraction are the two funicular railways in the district of Loschwitz. Both start near at the bus stop Körnerplatz (or approx. 10 minutes walking distance from the tram stop Schillerplatz). The funiculars are only partly integrated into the fare system of the public transport: only weekly and monthly season tickets are accepted, otherwise seperate tickets must be bought. Therefore, the purchase of a weekly travel pass might be advisable also for a stay of two or more days in Dresden.
Public Transport / Austria, Switzerland / Gmunden
Gmunden is a small town with about 13,000 inhabitants in Upper Austria. It has a 3-kilometre-long, metre-gauge tram line linking the station to the city centre. In 2013, it was decided to connect the tram with the likewise narrow-gauge local railway Gmunden Seebahnhof - Vorchdorf by a new 700-metre-long section and operate the railway with the tram vehicles. The tram is operated by → Stern & Hafferl Verkehrsgesellschaft.
Public Transport / Austria, Switzerland / Basel
Basel has some 200,000 inhabitants and approx. 500,000 inclusive the surrounding countryside ("Baselbiet"). It is situated in the northwest of Switzerland directly at the German and French border. The tram network of the → BVB (Basler Verkehrsbetriebe) and → BLT (Baselland Transport) also passes to Germany and France. Altogether, the tram routes have a length of approx. 75 kilometres. The outer branches to Aesch, Dornach, Pratteln and Rodersdorf are dedicated as railways and are operated by the BLT. As a compensation for the BLT-kilometrage in the city with its yellow tramway cars on the lines 10, 11 and 17 the line 14 is operated by BVB with its green vehicles.
Public Transport / Czech Republic, Slovakia, Hungary / Olomouc
The city of Olomouc is located in the east of the Czech Republic and has a population of 100,000. It has the smallest tram network in the Czech Republic with a total system length of approx. 15 kilometres. It is operated by → DPMO ("Dopravní podnik města Olomouce").
Public Transport / Czech Republic, Slovakia, Hungary / Liberec
The city of Liberec is located in the north of the Czech Republic in the border triangle near the German and Polish border and has a population of 100,000. It has a metre-gauge interurban tram line to Jablonec nad Nisou (12 kilometers away) as well as an inner city tramway, which was rebuilt on the standard gauge tracks (1,435 mm) in the 1990s. Operator of the tram and bus lines in both cities is → DPMLJ ("Dopravní podnik měst Liberce a Jablonce nad Nisou").
Public Transport / Czech Republic, Slovakia, Hungary / Most
The tram network in Most consists of an inner city route and an interurban line to the neighboring town of Litvinov. The system length is 18 kilometres. The history of the tram is as interesting as that of the city: in the 1970s, the city had to make room for the extending brown coal mining in the area. It was demolished and rebuilt two kilometres south, but almost entirely from prefabricated buildings. Accordingly, the tram within Most was also completely re-arranged until 1978. The interurban tram was already developed to a completely double-track rapid connection in the 1960s. The trams are operated by → DPmML (Dopravní podnik měst Mostu a Litvínova, a.s.)
Public Transport / Czech Republic, Slovakia, Hungary / Košice
The city of Košice is located in the east of Slovakia, about 80 kilometres from the border with Ukraine. With about 250,000 inhabitants, it is the second largest metropolitan area in the country and the only city in the country with a tram network beside the capital Bratislava. The network has a system length of approx. 35 kilometres, the trams run on standard-gauge tracks. The historic old town is unfortunately bypassed by the tram, the rest of the city is rather unsightly, as it is a city with an industrial background. The tram as well as the city buses are operated by → DPMK (Dopravný podnik mesta Košice).
Public Transport / Poland / Łódź (Lodz)
With a population of 700,000, Lodz is the third largest city in Poland after Warsaw and Krakow. It has a large tram network with a system length of more than 140 kilometres and a track gauge of 1,000 millimetres (metre-gauge). The tram as well as city buses are operated by the municipal transport company → MPK-Łódź (Miejskie Przedsiębiorstwo Komunikacyjne).
Public Transport / Poland / Szczecin
The city of Szczecin has about 400,000 inhabitants and is situated in western Poland only a few kilometres from the German border. The Szczecin tram network has a route length of approx. 50 kilometres and is operated by → Tramwaje Szczecińskie Sp. z.o.o. .
Public Transport / Poland / Bydgoszcz
The city of Bydgoszcz is located in the northeastern part of Poland in the Kujawsko-Pomorskie voivodeship and has a population of more than 350,000. It has a tram network with a track length of approx. 40 kilometres and a track gauge of 1,000 millimetres (metre gauge). The trams as well as the city buses are operated by → MZK Bydgoszcz (Miejskie Zakłady Komunikacyjne w Bydgoszczy).
Public Transport / Poland / Toruń
The city of Toruń is located in the western part of Poland in the Kujawsko-Pomorskie Voivodship and has about 200,000 inhabitants. It has a metre-gauge tram network with a system length of some 20 kilometres. The tram as well as the city buses are operated by → MZK Toruń (Miejski Zakład Komunikacji w Toruniu sp. z.o.o.)
Public Transport / Poland / Grudziądz
The city of Grudziądz has about 100,000 inhabitants and is located in the northern part of Poland, about 100 kilometres south of Gdansk in the Kujawsko-Pomorskie voivodship. It has a 7.6-kilometre-long, metre-gauge tram line. There is also a 1.4 kilometre branch line to the railway station, which is served only a few times a day by trams running from and to the depot. The operator is → MZK Grudziądz (Miejski Zakład Komunikacji Sp. z o.o. w Grudziądzu).
Public Transport / Poland / Częstochowa
Częstochowa, situated in the southern part of Poland, is the second largest city in Silesia after Katowice with a population of 200,000 inhabitants. It has a Y-shaped, almost 15-kilometre-long tram network, which is operated by → MPK Częstochowa (Miejskie Przedsiębiorstwo Komunikacyjne w Częstochowie Sp. z o.o.).
Public Transport / Poland / Gorzów Wielkopolski
The city of Gorzów Wielkopolski (German: Landsberg an der Warthe) has some 120,000 inhabitants and is located in western Poland about 40 kilometres away from the German-Polish border near Kostrzyn. It has a Y-shaped tram network with a route length of approx. 13 kilometres. The local transport company is called → MZK Gorzów (Miejski Zakład Komunikacji w Gorzowie Wielkopolskim Sp.z.o.o.).
Public Transport / Baltic States / Liepāja
Liepāja is a harbour town in the west of Latvia on the Baltic Sea and has about 80,000 inhabitants. The city has an almost eight kilometre long tram line, which runs on metre-gauge tracks and in relatively short intervals (partly every 7 minutes). The tram is operated by a municipal company called → SIA Liepājas tramvajs.